This chart shows Bitumen - Final Consumption by Country.
Bitumen in accordance with DIN 55946, DIN EN 12597, is the name for the during the gentle treatment of petroleum derived, dark colored, semisolid to spring hard , meltable , high molecular weight hydrocarbon -mixtures and in carbon disulfide soluble fractions of natural asphalts and earth wax , Montan wax .
The use of bitumen begins in the antiquity . Bitumen remains as fragments of sealing material, which are more than 3000 years older than the in Ra's al-Jins in Oman found , Have archeologists in as-Sabiyah discovered. In a Neolithic village at the edge of a lagoon found it next to the anticipated Arab artifacts including those of Mesopotamian Obed culture . 3000 v. Chr. It was first demonstrated in the city of Hit encouraged to natural seeps. Numerous descriptions, according to the place must have been a center of the former asphalt industry.
The bitumen are colloidal systems that in an oily matrix, dark, resin - until cabbage-like carbon-rich particles from the central MR 300 to 3000 included . Bitumen is mainly composed of high molecular weight hydrocarbons and further includes chemically bonded at low levels of sulfur , oxygen , nitrogen and some traces of metals . It is practically insoluble in water and therefore, for example, used to protect sensitive materials and components against water.
Bitumen is one of the thermoplastic materials, that is, its viscosity is dependent on temperature: When cooling is brittle , when heating it passes continuously all states of solid over viscous and between 150 ° and 200 ° C low viscosity . With rising temperatures, it begins to slowly decompose, it then loses its plastic properties. Bitumen has no fixed melting point such. As water, but it has a melting range , because the various components of the hydrocarbon mixture have different melting points.
Bitumen is mainly used as the residue from the vacuum distillation obtained from petroleum. Here only specific crude oils are allowed, almost exclusively hochschweflige "Urals", "heavy" crude oils, such as "Arab Heavy", "Kuwait", "Iran Heavy", "Kirkuk". Niedrigschweflige , light crudes such. As Brent or forties are entirely unsuitable because the required low needle penetration of the vacuum residue can not be achieved.
7 years ago